Monographs

Monograph no. 69

Cloud Authentication and Forensics

Criminally motivated individuals will seek to exploit opportunities to avoid prosecution, such as using the latest technologies (e.g.

Monograph no. 68

Alcohol/Drug-Involved Family Violence in Australia

(ADIVA)

Alcohol/Drug-Involved Family Violence in Australia (ADIVA) primarily sought to determine the relationships between alcohol and other drug (AOD) use

Monograph no. 67

Drug and Alcohol intoxication and Subsequent Harm in night-time Entertainment Districts

(DASHED)

Drug and Alcohol Intoxication and Subsequent Harm in night-time Entertainment Districts (DASHED) investigated the harms associated with alcohol acr

Monograph no. 65

Managing intoxicated offenders

Best practice in responding to individuals affected by drugs and alcohol

A considerable proportion of a police officer’s time involves interactions with persons who are intoxicated or under the infl

Monograph no. 64

Policing and pathways to diversion and care among vulnerable young people who use alcohol and other drugs

This report explores the facilitators and barriers to care for vulnerable young people who use alcohol and other drugs and who have police contact.

Monograph no. 63

Stimulant use transitions and harm mitigation responses: Analysis of a qualitative dataset

Early adulthood is the peak age for involvement in illicit amphetamine-type stimulant use, including use of ecstasy (MDMA) and methamphetamine.

Monograph no. 62

Trafficking in multiple commodities: Exposing Australia’s poly-drug and poly-criminal networks

International law enforcement agencies have increasingly pointed to an apparent rise in poly-drug traffickers: high level drug traffickers who choo

Monograph no. 61

Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA): An expansion into the Pilbara, Western Australia

The link between the use of alcohol and other drugs, and crime has been well established by the Australian Institute of Criminology’s Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) project in metropolitan areas around Australia. However, little is known about this link in regional Western Australia. To better understand alcohol and drug use among a regional offending population, the DUMA project was utilised to collect data in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. In South Hedland (regional Western Australia), 51 police detainees were interviewed and compared with a sample of 209 Perth (metropolitan Western Australia) detainees. The present study provides empirical evidence on the usage patterns and role of alcohol and other drugs, and a picture of the local drug market in the Pilbara. The findings indicated that alcohol use was much higher in the regional setting, however illicit drug use among those interviewed was significantly lower across most drug types. Of particular concern were the levels of risky drinking reported by South Hedland detainees; which they were more likely to attribute to their current detention. The findings suggest the holistic approach to dealing with higher levels of substance use in the region should continue. These findings will assist in responding to community needs to shape prevention and response strategies.

Monograph no. 59

Social supply of cannabis in Australia

Australian retail markets for most illicit drugs, including cannabis, are based significantly upon friendships and occur in closed settings. This has been described as ‘lounge room’, as opposed to ‘street’, dealing (Nicholas 2008). Similar observations have been made in other countries, and in the UK the term ‘social supply’ was coined to describe this aspect of the drug market where a supplier who is not considered to be a ‘drug dealer proper’ brokers, facilitates or sells drugs, for little or no financial gain, to friends and acquaintances (Hough et al. 2003). In this qualitative and quantitative study, a convenience sample of 200 cannabis users aged between 18 and 30 years were interviewed in Perth (n=80), Melbourne (n=80) and Armidale (NSW; n=40). They were recruited online and through the mainstream street press, flyers, and snowballing. Participants mostly described a closed market characterised by high levels of trust between consumers and suppliers already known to each other at the level of adjacent pairs or small group networks, typically selling in private. Their qualitative accounts of what happened last time they scored or obtained cannabis provided rich descriptions of the process of obtaining cannabis for these young users. Although participants often described their main cannabis supplier as ‘a friend’, roughly three-fifths reported this relationship was a friendship first and two-fifths reported it was a supply relationship first. Overall, 94 percent of the sample had ever supplied cannabis and 78 percent had done so in the past six months. Although most people who engaged in supply understood that their activities would be regarded as such in law, most did not consider themselves to be a dealer. The findings have implications for the policing of social supply drug markets, the public education of participants in the social supply market and how social supply offences are dealt with in law.

Monograph no. 58

Understanding and describing Australian illicit drug markets

This study has provided a detailed description of the drug purchase and drug use patterns of a cohort of people who inject drugs, and an understanding of changes that occurred between 2009 and 2014. During this period, heroin, methamphetamine, benzodiazepines and other opioids were typically purchased between 10am and 2pm with very little search time, were used almost immediately following their acquisition, and sharing a purchase or pooling money with a partner or friend was common, as were larger (>$100) purchases. Reported drug purchases and drug use both occurred more frequently in private homes than public settings, and this became increasingly so over time. Although the primary drug of the cohort remained heroin, two trends in drug use were observed: a transition from heroin to cannabis use, consistent with some of the cohort ‘maturing out’; and among existing methamphetamine users, a transition from powder to crystal methamphetamine use and increased methamphetamine consumption, corresponding with increased availability of the crystal form and a dramatic decrease in purity-adjusted price.

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